Dating sw model 10
Anthropology fields are: Socio-cultural, Linguistics, Physical anthropology, and Archaeology.
The American Southwest cultural area defined: From Durango Mexico to Durango, Colorado and from Las Vegas, Nevada to Las Vegas, New Mexico.All of Arizona, Southern Utah and Colorado, and most of New Mexico. Pueblo means "village." The pueblos are the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the United States. The majority, the Eastern Pueblos, are in the Rio Grande Valley.Distinguishing features are diverse topography, aridity, simple technology. Prehistoric Puebloans were agriculturalists and hunters and gathers. Unifying features of Puebloans are clan organization, adult initiation into societies, shared world view with this as the fourth world, sipapu is the place of emergence from the underworld, ritual structures called kivas have a sipapu.Geographic/Cultural subdivisions are Puebloan, Rancherias and Athapaskans. Katchinas in one conception are seen as ancestral spirits that bring rain.Katchina dances encourage the katchinas to arrive, ceremonies conducted in kivas and plazas.Rancherias are a dispersed settlement pattern over several miles instead of a concentrated village.
Many ethnic groups are included in the rancheria area. Evidence of civilization prompted assumptions of help from other "civilizations." Direct Historic Approach (1870 - 1910) Richard Wetherill discovers cliff dweller sites like Mesa Verde.
These include the Pima, Tohono O'odham and related languages. Pima lived on or around major rivers and were sedentary, 60% farming dependent, using tepary, beans, squash and corn. These are archaeological names, not actual ancient cultures. 1540 Coronado expedition reached Zuni, the Tiwa pueblos. John Wesley Powell, Smithsonian Bureau of American Ethnology, begins salvage archaeology, collection as much information as possible. in archaeology, (1915 - 1929) conducted the first stratigraphic excavations of middens at Pecos Pueblo. Basketmaker and Pueblo periods defined by the Pecos Classification. Processal Archaeology (1960 on) Louis Binford wanted archaeologists to develop general laws of cultural processes. Cultural Resource Management 1974 - Archaeological Resource Protection Act passed.
Tohono O'odham migrated with the seasons using two settlements and were 25% farming dependent. Design a research strategy to gather evidence sought, 4. Red-on-Bluff People was an early category for the Hohokam. Stevenson Expedition to Zuni in 1897 collected information and objects, wrote an encyclopedic volume. 1915 - Department of Anthropology at University of Arizona. 1937 - Douglass founds the Laboratory of Tree Ring Research at U of A. Some large projects have been Roosevelt, Black Mesa.
Both organized into local groups and these groups endured for centuries, surviving longer than the actual villages. Context provides the basis for understanding items. gather the evidence, excavate, do laboratory work and write the results. For the first time data was collected with objects. Chronology and Classification (1910 - 1960) Systematic data collection begins and classification schemes are proposed. Points in an extinct bison altered the temporal paradigm. Caused a large change in what is studied and provided a great increase in the financial expenditures on archaeology. Domesticated are genetically altered and dependent, to some extent, on human propagation.
Excavation is destructive, therefore the archaeologist has a responsibility to preserve material, collect data and record findings. Frank Hamilton Cushing, part of the Stevenson Expedition, lived at Zuni, went native and was adopted into a Zuni society, spoke their language. Kroeber and Spier (1916 - 1917) developed the seriation method based on pottery remains. 1990 - NAGPRA - cultural affiliation rights, agencies had to list items held, tribes could make claim, scientific and humanistic evidence valid. Cultivated are the same genetically as wild, tough planted and cared for by humans. Hohokam Region: Sonoran advantage- lush desert with wild food plants year around; spring wild barley, agave, cholla buds -- summer saguaro fruits -- fall and winter mesquite, acorns, prickly pear. Farming of corn, various beans, squash, gourds, supported by large-scale irrigation on flood plains. Mogollon Region: Forests rich in plants but not in human foods, diverse wild resources are cacti, mesquite, piñon, acorns, but not abundant.
Key factors are rainfall, temperature, number of frost free days, farmland availability, water sources, floodwater. Farming of small patches of arable land by rainfall and floodwater farming. Weather often not ideal, wet and cool or warm and dry. Pueblo Region: Less diverse wild resources, arable land varies by area with growing season problems in some areas.