In 1945, Czechoslovakia was reestablished under communist rule as a Soviet satellite.
Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era (200,000 – 80,000 BC) come from the Prévôt (Prepoštská) cave near Bojnice and from other nearby sites.The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium (c.200,000 BC), discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia.Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Hron, Ipeľ, Váh and as far as the city of Žilina, and near the foot of the Vihorlat, Inovec, and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains.It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south.Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi) and is mostly mountainous.
The population is over 5 million and comprises mostly ethnic Slovaks. The official language is Slovak, a member of the Slavic language family.
The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries.
In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra.
In the 10th century, the territory was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, which itself became part of the Habsburg Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Slovaks and Czechs established Czechoslovakia.
A separate Slovak Republic (1939–1945) existed in World War II as a client state of Nazi Germany.